What is Strophanthin /Ouabain and how to use it
What is Strophanthin?
Strophanthin was, by chance, discovered in Africa in 1859. In England processed, inFrance analysed and in Germany first used with great health-effective-qualities, by Prof. Albert Fraenkel (v. interesting piece in wikipedia) intravenously. Fraenkels boss was Prof. Ludolf von Krehl. Both founded important clinics in Heidelberg and Badenweiler and well-known medical prizes are named after them.
When in 1924 Prof. Ernst Edens (3), Ordinarius of Medicin University Clinic Düsseldorf presented to his intern colleagues his outstanding experiences with Strophanthin as a cure for Angina pectoris and Heart attacks he earned, curiously, not just euphoria but also scepticism and rejection.
Prof. Ernst Edens (3) said, “not using Strophanthin is a medical mistake”. Until about 1975 Strophanthin was used intravenously with success in nearly all hospitals and university clinics in Germany and is until today, known for its good effect by all older doctors. Also, older experienced nurses have confirmed to me the great reputation of Strophanthin. Also the oral preparate (orally and not intravenously) developed since 1947, displays convincing results. Even though today it is nearly the best and side-effect free heart remedy, the opinion of the medical academics is:
a. it doesn’t work
b. it is highly poisonous
c. there are better remedies today
An excellent book by Dr. Fuerstenwerth: Ouabain – a gift from paradise
In response to a:
98 % of all doctors that have used or continued to use it, have observed an extremely high effectiveness, the other 2 % remain within limits, positive. None of the doctors asked were negative about its effectiveness. (Questionnaire from 3650 doctors, 1984) (4).
A placebo controlled, double blind study observed a highly significant effectiveness of orally taken Strophanthin. All Angina pectoris patients experienced an improved EKG and well-feeling, the most a marked improvement in condition (5). Prof. Dormann used Strophanthin capsules for 12 years in a large Berlin hospital: 99 % of patients with Angina pectoris took a stomach acid resistant capsule and were complaint free after 2 weeks (82 % after 1 week), all previous remedies were omitted (6). Also acute heart infarct patients in the clinic received Strophanthin (both oral and intravenous) with the result that the worlds best survival rate was archived. By 1987 over 1000 patients had been treated (7). In Milan Prof Agostini experienced similar sensational results (7a).
In Germany, Dr. Jürgen Freiherr von Rosen, has treated Angina pectoris and Myocardinfarkt patients with intravenous Strophanthin for decades and continues today (7b). From many studies and reports I will mention one especially, from a mine in Gelsenkirchen. Previously there were 3 deaths recorded per year through heart attack. With Strophanthin capsules, to bite in acute cases, there were a total of nil deaths in 10 years. A success rate of 100% (8).
Also remarkable are the reports of Prof. Sarre, University of Freiburg (5a) and the renown German cardiologist Prof. Hallhuber (5b). Interesting also the case-history of Dr. Med. Markus Heyde. In today’s medicine a medicament that works just 5 – 10 % better than a placebo is celebrated as a success. Lots of money is invested in large studies, the most financed by the Pharmaceutical Industry. It’s much different for Strophanthin.
Today if a teaching professor talks about or uses Strophanthin, he would not be taken seriously as a teacher, and his career would be over. The medical school academics cannot escape from their self imposed infarct hypothesis (focus: blocked arteries).
Prof. Baroldi (8a, 8b), for example, researched a non primary arterial cause for heart infarct He received much acclaim for his over 250 researched papers but was nevertheless ignored by the medical academics. Simply to use it and to be happy that it works, and it works wonderfully well, is to the modern scientific medical community an anathema. In the face of the importance of such a remedy like Strophanthin a large study (more than 1000 patients) should be promoted. Instead Strophanthin was judged as useless through a defective study of 10 patients (9).
I am reminded in this of the tragic story of Ignaz Semmelweiss, who through the use of hygienic hand desinfection could effectively fight child bed fever, his medical colleagues, mostly the medical teachers with academic arrogance, could not take it seriously because they could not prove what they could clearly see. That’s how it is today with Strophanthin, practical uses are ignored, they don’t trust their own eyes, rather wait for a theoretical explanation model. My pharmacology teacher Prof. Gustav Kuschinsky studied Strophanthin in depth. He is the author of the pharmacology-textbook that every student of medicine uses. Unfortunately, today Strophanthin is no longer mentioned positively in the text-book.
Hope grows at the moment in other areas of basic science. In Physiology, Prof. Hamlyn, later Prof. Schoner and many others, recognized that Strophanthin is not just an exotic African plant extract that in the highest concentration was used as a deadly arrow tip, rather it can be found in the body of every mammal, including humans, in very small quantities (10, 10a, 11, 11a). In these extremely small concentrations it is a naturally produced hormone in the body th at influences the regulation of the hearts electrolytes, blood pressure, oxygen extradition in some stress situations and the disposal of acid metabolite.
Strophanthin is an anti-stress-agent and also protects through this way the heart, and works also for depression and can be used for performance improvement (43). Interestingly a German patent exists over the use of Strophanthin as an agent against psychological exhaustion conditions. Curiously the patent belongs to Meda, the producer of Strodival. The company is not willing, or not equipped to extend its uses for itself and humanity (43a).
Strophanthin in small concentration works positively, because it opens the fundamentally important Sodium-Pottasum pump in every cell wall (in opposite to greater concentrations with inhibitive results) (12, 12a). It has been proved many times that the body absorbs Strophanthin by mouth (13). The vexed absorption question splits the medical world, because an early inadequate examination by an important Professor found no Strophanthin in the blood. Everybody believed him. Our medical system is unfortunately so hierarchical, one pronounced decision from above (excathedra) and that decision is written in stone. The valued effects of Strophanthin are not acknowledged because it is not experimentally proven that Strophanthin works. The sodium pottosium pump was discovered by the Dane Skou, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1997 (see wikipedia).
Furthermore there is strong research interest from veterinary medicine (14).
The best conclusions and discussion about the Strophanthin question were put together in a book by R.J. Petry (in German only, an English precis by R.J. Petry is available in the last menu link of my homepage), entitled “the solution of heart infarct problems with Strophanthin” published in 2006. There are an extraordinary 1650 literary references to the theme listed in the book. Also the always highly argumented question of non resorption is thoroughly discussed. Therein lies proof from a dozen experiments using radioactive marking showing a high and pharmacological effective resorption(16-28). The chemist Dr. Hauke Fuerstenwerth wrote an outstanding English summary: “Ouabain, the insulin of the heart” (60b). Also he discussed the difference between Ouabain and Digitalis “ On the Differences Between Ouabain and Digitalis Glycosides” (60, 60a).
On the Internet (google: Strophanthin or Strophantin) many Idealists, like me, and patients, or users have recorded their knowledge, experiences and concerns. Link. It seems to me, that it would be possible over the internet, to support basic demand from sick people. The “simple” Doctor can only do what their “teaching” allows. Also the media, the TV show “report”, radio or Dr. Schmiedsberger in “Die Bunte”(then a serious magazine) tried it with no success.
The health-journalist Wolfgang Spieß has recently published an excellent overview about Strophanthin in his magazine “Vital Journal”, edition summer 2009. Even the politicians are inactive and impotent. I even see a parallel (in reverse) with Con tergan. This was withdrawn from use because it was extremely dangerous. Because of it’s extreme effectiveness, Strophanthin should be introduced by law, and it’s non-use seen as criminal failure to render assistance.
In response to b (“it is highly poisonous”):
Use by injection in the vein, direct in the blood, is extremely useful (6), but when overdosed damaging, just like an African poison arrow. It has resulted, especially in the USA, in deadly incidents caused by over-doses or injections administered too quickly. Intravenous doses up to 0,25 milligram however will certainly cause no damage, especially by slow injection. Oral Strophanthin, on the other hand, is absolutely safe. Because of a reputed weak or too low resorption Strophanthin has required a prescription since 1975 even though when used orally it has very few important side-effects (at first, light diarrhoea and/or burning sensation in the mouth). It works alongside all other medicines.(4)
Proven for over 100 years, confirmed in 1998 by the “Arzneimittelkommision der deutschen Ärzteschaft” (Medication Commission of German doctors and pharmaceuticals, of late, also by the Health Ministry. In 1999 Dr (med) Heinz-Werner Pauls related an impressive report recording 25 years treatment and infarct prophylaxis with perlingual Strophanthin (Strodival). See original literature (15).
A revealing macabre suicide attempt: swallowing 300 capsules was not deadly, it resulted in a temporary heart complaint with no long-term damage. The extremely involved leader of the health department Dr. Schmitsberger, who wrote (in laymans terms) the highly interesting and exciting book “Skandal Herzinfarkt (2), won a court process against the “Stern” magazine (8 year process with many
pharmalogical experts). The “Stern” would get fined 500 000 DM should it ever say in the future, that Strophanthin was dangerous or damaging. (Sternprozess 1992) (26).
In response to c (“there are better remedies today”):
A long term study by Helsinki University (32) has shown that the acute treatments for Heart attacks are very helpful. Middle and long term treatments were nevertheless not the best possible treatment. With no treatment at all there were less heart attacks
recorded . (Placebo controlled, double blind study with 1200 cases, Univers. of Helsinki). In short, Strophanthin is highly effective, not poisonous, combined with acute medicine a boon for that stricken heart.
Links on the literature list to countless further reports. The numbers in brackets are from the menu list “Literaturliste” (literature)
If you have a deeper interest in the literature list, send me an email with your wishes, I can provide each one for 5 Euros.
How should you use it?
Speak with your doctor, yes, “wrestle” with him. At a pinch get him to write it up for you as a “placebo”. Both private and public healthcare prescriptions are possible. It would be written up as “Rp, Strodival mg, 100 or 300 capsules”. In both prescription cases a refund is possible, but not certain. In the start and test phases, in comparison to the meaning and danger of heart disease, 30 Euros for 100 capsules should play no part. Observe and enjoy, along with your doctor, the wonder of your progressive recovery.
THE BITE AND THE SWALLOW CAPSULES ARE NO LONGER PROCUCED (JULI 2012). NEVERTHELESS READ THE FOLLOWING:
As bite capsule:
Swallow your saliva carefully. The mouth should be as dry as possible (because saliva reduces the effectiveness). Bite the capsule with the back teeth and then chew only 2 or 3 times on the capsule. Then take the capsule out of your mouth. A second capsule is then normally taken in the same manner. Leaving the capsule too long in the mouth motivates saliva production and thins the oily, somewhat sharp fluid. Disperse the oily substance with your tongue around the mouth reasonably quickly. The exposure time is about 10 minutes. That means, don’t drink or eat for the next 10 minutes. At the same time talk as little as possible. The normal automatic “empty swallowing” will occur and doesn’t matter. False teeth or periodontosis does not influence the effect, even though the instructions for Strodival R say the opposite. If you have a highly sensitive tooth, a passing toothache can occur.
More important is my information to you, based on my own experience, that, with Bronchitis, throat or mouth inflammation, you will get a very strong throat tickle followed by an up to 10 minutes long coughing fit. Therefore, with Bronchitis or similar, you should not use the bite capsules ( see next chapter ).
Begin mornings and evenings with one capsule and increase the dosage up to 4 times a day with one or two capsules. The dosage orienteers itself, in the first line, to the symptoms, that means, as needed! Observe the beneficial effects on your well-being and your heart. For example, pain, twinges, dragging pain, tightness in the chest, climbing stairs, weather change, excitement, frustration and other situations that you know. Increase the dosage until you feel totally well and then you could possibly lightly reduce the dose. In general people cautiously take too little. Watch out for possible “Beinödeme” (fluid in the legs), how you lie (people with heart illness don’t lie happily on the left), waking up in the night and so on. As you probably know, these are all Angina pectoris and Heart insufficiency symptoms. Start a diary with data. A simple notepad is enough, then at the next visit to the doctor you will have all the important facts to hand to discuss with him.
As swallow capsule
For some people, the bite capsule in its emulsion case (soya) is too bitter or sharp. Other people, like me, love the taste. When it is too bitter we can recommend the use of the “stomach resistant” swallow capsule “mr”. Here we swallow 1 to 3 capsules up to 4 times a day, dosage slowly increasing to fit the need, on an empty stomach, ½ hour before eating, along with plenty of water. The capsule should go through the stomach and begin dissolving in the small intestine.
In case you forget to take your capsules ½ hour before eating, which happens regularly with me!, you can take a bite capsule after eating as directed above. You can t ake the “mr” capsule during or after eating, it won’t be anihilated in the stomach, it just takes a little longer to take effect. Sometimes at the beginning of taking “mr” the defecation can be thinner.
Please ignore the pronounced side-effects on the package notes, these are based on the error that Strophanthin and Digitalis are identical cardiac glycosides. Fact is: Digitalis restricts the Sodium Potassium pump (12,13), Strophanthin improves and de-acifides it.
Alternatives to Strodival:
Very few specially equipped chemists can provide the long trusted tinktura strophanthi. Every doctor is allowed to prescribe it and every medical insurance pays. It is prescribed as: G-Strophanthin Tinktur 12mg/ml. 100 ml.
You can send your prescription to:
Dr. Eichele, Schlossapotheke, 56068 Koblenz, Schlosstr. 17, phone (Germany) 0261 – 18439, fax 0261 – 12449.
The Strophanthin contained in the tincture differs.
0,4% . = 22 drops contain 3 mg g-Strophanthin like one capsula Strodival.
0,6% = 15 drops contain 3 mg g-Strophanthin like one capsula Strodival.
1,2 % = 8 drops contain 3 mg g-Strophanthin like one capsula Strodival.
As drops it is not so bitter as by bite-capsule form. I have had no experience about the side effects concerning diarrhoea. In any case
diarrhoea is a seldom event. I always advise starting carefully with the dosis and slowly increase.
Jens Boving, Apotheke am Markt, Marktplatz 18, 73479 Ellwangen. Phone (Germany) 07961 – 2582. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
With the 1,2 % tincture from Mr. Boving, 6 drops contain 3mg. Strophanthin = one capsula Strodival.
The firm “Spagyra” sells a homeopathic tincture, located in Austria. Email: email@example.com
Without a prescription you can buy a very good tinctura at the firm „Teebrasil“. Shippment from Brasil has been fast, reliable and without trouble.
There is also a homoeopathic form called D4 (Strophactiv, with alcohol). I recommend it for patients until they can get hold of the “real”
Strophanthin. Or for patients, with only slight stress- or heartsymptoms. Or for patients, that are extremely sensitive or have bad
experiences with conventional medicine or are afraid to start with the “real” Strophanthin right away.
There was a study showing more than 60% patients with an improved EKG (31). Anyway, one can expect an increase in your blood count after a homoeopathic dose, because, even in incredibly small doses, Strophanthin is effective. There is in addition to a homoeopathic effect, a probable allopathic substantial effect. Another possibility to administer homoeopathic Strophanthin is through “Strophantab” from the Heel Company. In tablet form, 3 times a day one tablet dissolved under the tongue. Like the “real” Strophanthin, start slowly, increasing the dosis every two days by 5 drops until reaching 15 drops three times a day. Or one tablet, increasing every week until three times one.
Strophanthus gratus D1 = Tct. 50ml. Original tincture.
The spagyrish prepared homoepathic tincture tastes very bitter. The effect is even better than the Tinctura Strophanthy from the Schlossapotheke Koblenz I think. About 25 drops equal 6mg. 6 mg equal 2 capsule of the “real” Strophanthin. One bottle with 50g equals one box with 100 capsules from Meda. So it costs less money to buy one bottle than one box. But I feel it is difficult to keep 25 drops for 7 minutes in the mouth without swallowing it.
If a Strophanthin-medicine is no longer produced you can always fall back on the Strophanthin-seeds. I tried it, about 5 grains equal the effect of 2 capsules. You have to bite it and then keep it in the mouth for 10 minutes. I tried it for 4 weeks and felt very good.
In case you already take Strophanthin regularly and go into hospital please insist to continue taking Strophanthin. If they do not want to allow you to take it, they or you schould give me a call (Germany 0171-5172324). What could happen to you is told by my wife in her book “Strophantus g, death by neglect”. Here is a link to her homepage and this book.
Chest tightness or Angina pectoris is a sure symptom of a sick heart. Should you experience an Angina pectoris pain longer than 15 minutes, so advise doctors and cardiologists, you should immediately contact a hospital because a heart attack is on the way. That means direct, no diversions to your doctor. That is standard today. Light and short chest pains are very often not taken seriously, by patients and doctors. Your doctor normally sends you to a Cardiologist. They would get involved when something showed up in EKG or blood. Otherwise you are sent home with friendly words and banal advice, and perhaps a calming medicine. Exactly here is the right place to employ Strophanthin as a help and healing agent.
Angina pectoris occurs, amongst others, through over acid in the heart muscle, through psycho vegetative stress or over excitement. When you notice a slight tightness in the chest or a transmitted pain to the left arm or heavy nausea, or teeth pain or back pain, then you should take Strophanthin as soon as possible. After 7 minutes effect on the tongue the pain is gone, the heart muscle freed of acid. Unfortunately, the first heart infarct, for woman especially, occurs in most cases without warning. My brother, for example, always had back pain in a tense or stressful situation. Taking Strodival removed the pain. Because he is a very sceptical person, he had to test it (Karenztest) 3 times with and without. Every time with the same result: with Strodival the pain left and he felt even-tempered and calmer. Therefore you too should experience the wonderful, helpful effects of Strophanthin.
Joyful news reach us from Israel and the Charité Berlin. Prof. Lichtstein, renown psychologist of the University Jerusalem, has rediscovered Strophanthin. He wrote Ouabain reduces the toxicology of Digitalis.
At the Charité Berlin, Prof. Michalsen and Yatin Shah are preparing a great study about the use of Strophanthin.
Where to find more information
Particularly under the menu point: “Recommended Books” (empfohlene Bücher) and addendum “Kaegelmann, the untold story of Strophanthin”.
Prophylaxis and help in Emergency
The clever Strophanthin-wise or sceptic, even when he hasn’t had a heart attack, always carries a mini-dose. There is a convenient Tupperware container which can hold 3 Strodival mr in the trouser pocket, better still in the purse or on a key ring. Or an adress-capsule usually used on the dogleash. (http://w ww.alsa-hundewelt.de/shop/Namensschild-Erkennungsmarke/p/7114101/leinen_halsungen_zubehoer).
By an attack (light or heavy) bite on them (min. 2) or give them to a heart-attack victim.
In this way I helped a cyclist who had had a heart attack and had fallen on the roadside. It was clear, he was grey and yellow-green in the face, cold sweat, short of breath, with extreme pain in the chest. By the time the ambulance came he was feeling well again. He was, to be on the safe side, taken to hospital.
How you help someone else in an emergency is not easy. You open the first capsule outside the mouth (by using your front teeth and biting on the edge of a capsule. Or use a sharp or pointy knife.) I recommend to try the opening as explained above at home, to be sure in case of an emergency. Then press the content of the capsule on your fingertip and smear it in the mouth on the inside of the cheek (buccal mucosa-resorption).
Sickness Story Dr. med. Völkner, see Literature No. 27. He has personal experience after a Bypass.
Frau Sigrid Hotaki, natural remedy healer, from Coburg has allowed me to publish her story. She wrote to me on 7. July 07:
Dear Dr. Debusmann, I will gladly put down my experience with Strodival in writing to you.
Before I began taking Strodival (especially by weather change, storm fronts,
temperature swings and so on): Heart pain, strain in the jaw, tightness
in the heart, dizziness and light nausea, insecurity, anxious. Result: I
didn’t trust myself anymore in the car, took rather a taxi, cancelled
all possible meetings including important recreational activities. Sat
at home and waited for the condition to get better. Self diagnosed
therapy: Theophyllin, Magnesium, Natron (if anything hardly successful,
since it brought relief only after 3 or 4 hours).
After taking Strodival: no complaints whatsoever (other than one time in bed a
light heart pain that, after 2 Strodival capsules on the tongue, was
gone in 10 minutes). The changing weather had no longer any negative
effect on my heart when used as you told me with a dry mouth (in the
morning in bed whilst lying in order to minimise saliva). In addition,
to the above, I have noted the disappearance of pain in the back of my
head and I feel altogether fresh and no longer tired in the late
afternoon, which I have felt for years.
Thanks to you, dear Dr. Debusmann, and by Strodival I have got my quality of life back, for which I am extremely grateful.
With best regards
Email from nature healer Frau Sigrid Hotaki on 17.April 08:
“Dear Herr Dr. Debusmann – best wishes for your lectures and new website. I
have managed to turn more people to try Strodival (one of them a long
term patient who was motivated by your lecture in the “Munich
hofbrauhaus” in Coburg).
I take it, like before, 3 times a day, you in the meantime? Is there
proof that the effects last 6 hours? The capsules are on my bedside
table and when I, for example wake up at 5 am, I bite two. Since I take
Strodival, I have no heart complaints whatsoever. Also, as you told me,
it has had no sudden effects on my heart rhythm disruption but could,
after some time, cause a reduction. This is now clearly the case from my
The proven effects are to see in all my individual weaknesses, an overall better condition.
Invite all your opponents to dinner – there is fish in wine sauce,
white bread and plenty of white wine and cheese – a pure acid meal. A
tomato salad and unripe tomatoes can also be eaten. 30 minutes later
test the guests urine with indicator strips, and then it would show it
was in Acid level. ( when not then there is a rare case of dangerous
acid block, which should be treated). Your guests bite, under your
“state of the art” instruction 2 Strophanthin capsules and 30 minutes
later measure again. Result: the urine is in the normal area, the
indicator strip deep blue. The reasons I would like to hear but it would
at least make the people think.
I wish you all the best with your astounding crusade. More success and also fun!
Herr Vesters’ Health Story
Dear Herr Dr. Debusmann
I have followed and studied your website with great interest and hope
this somewhat long entry will help to win over the sceptics.
I have been involved with Strophanthin for some years, and in 2005 made the following entry in the Guestbook of Mr. Melhorn:
“My uncle has suffered from a weak heart and heart rhythm disruption for
years. The medication used was Digitalis, Betablocker and dehydration
tablets. In the last 2 years he had to go 2 times into hospital (2 weeks
each year). This year he wanted to cancel his holiday because he had
for weeks pressure in his heart area and could hardly walk 10 steps (his
own diagnosis predicted water in the lungs). Defying common sense he
went away with his wife on holiday. The train journey alone made for
hard work. At the holiday destination it was almost unthinkable to
contemplate leaving their holiday home.
At the same time I was staying in the holiday home complex. As normal I
had my Strophanthin ration with me, that I had organized about a year
ago since I had tried even then to persuade my uncle to at least try
On the morning of the third day my Uncle asked me over, he had sat half
the night next to an open window fighting for breath. Sleeping was
unthinkable. In the morning in addition to shortage of breath he
experienced a strong pressure in the heart area. He sat at the table and
looked miserable. Normally he would be an emergency case for the
doctor. I decided however, which with luck was the right decision, to
handle the emergency situation myself using Strophanthin. I told him we
should wait for maximum 15 minutes before calling a doctor. He, of
cause, didn’t want this, he thought it would be o.k. soon.
I took 2 Strodival capsules, cut the ends off, dried his tongue with a
cloth and smeared the contents of the capsule on his tongue. I asked him
to try not to swallow.
Then it happened as I had hoped, I must say after all my research it
happened as I expected. The heart pressure was clearly reduced and my
uncle’s breathing promptly improved.
However, aware of my responsibilities, I called a doctor, but not an emergency
call. He came 2 hours later and because of the symptoms (and the coming
week-end) sent my uncle to hospital for examination. I spoke about
Strophanthin but he winked and told me that was in one of the tablets my
uncle was taking. That was naturally rubbish, which I discovered by
studying the tablet notes. I guess that he mixed it up with Digitalis or
didn’t know about Strophanthin at all.
In the hospital my uncle had a dehydration injection and on the next day
was examined from head to toe. Thanks to my Aunt we convinced him to
take 3 X 2 Strodival per day. We didn’t tell the doctor, that would have
been “a waste of time”. Directly after the weekend I spoke to one of
the doctors who said he was surprised how well the patient felt even
though they had only made a very slight change to his existing
medication. They kept him in hospital for further observation and sent
him back on Wednesday. In the meantime I had organized for him another
packet of Strophanthin through his doctor and a chemist so that my uncle
could enjoy the rest of his holiday.
Three months went by and he got much better. His doctor had even begun to
reduce certain medicament. Astonished my uncle mentioned he can walk
much further and the chronic cough that was his constant companion has
disappeared. He is in the meantime absolutely convinced about
Strophanthin and says he should have begun taking it much earlier.
Because the medical academic took such a stand against Strophanthin, it
required an emergency to change the view of at least my uncle and his
doctor. My uncle is incidentally, well over 80 years old.
In the meantime 3 years have gone by and my uncle has not seen a hospital
from the inside. He feels well. Coincidence? That’s the way many
academic doctors would have explained it to me in the past.
More health stories on my homepage under “Guestbook” (Gästebuch) in the menu.
Printversion: 09 Nov.2012
Translation by Don Foot, firstname.lastname@example.org